Oil Storage: Global Markets Through 2023

Publish Date: May 2019 | Category: Energy & Power | Publisher: BCC Research | Status: Publish

The global oil storage market should reach $661.3 billion by 2023 from $617.2 billion in 2018 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.4% for the period of 2018 to 2023.

Report Scope:

Chapter 1 presents the introduction. The study goal and objectives are identified and the reasons for doing the study are presented. It also provides the contribution of the study and for whom, the scope and format, methodology and intended audience. The credentials of the analyst are presented and the related BCC Research reports listed.

Chapter 2 presents the summary and highlights of the report, including a summary table and figure which present some key findings from the study.

Chapter 3 presents an overview of the oil storage industry. The overview puts the global oil storage in its proper context to generate an estimate that puts global crude and products stocks somewhere in the region of 9-10 billion barrels, and presents a brief history of the industry.

Chapter 4 presents the major trends that are impacting the oil storage market, including a description of the importance of the oil storage infrastructure in relation to the overall global energy economy.

Chapter 5 quantifies the demand for oil storage by type, including economic grouping, type of reserve, stock, market player, location in the infrastructure chain, geographic region and type of cluster. These are each quantified with global and regional forecasts made up to 2023.

Chapter 6 quantifies the demand for oil storage by product, including crude oil and refined oil, gravity and distillation fraction. These products are each quantified with global forecasts made up to 2023.

Chapter 7 presents the demand for oil storage by technology, covering a detailed analysis of the containment systems, including tank storage, cavern storage and on-water storage. It assesses and evaluates the containment technology by type with forecast to 2023. The technologically leading countries are assessed based on key technology areas.

Chapter 8 presents the demand for oil storage by end-use application, such as transport, industry, petrochemicals, residential/commercial/agriculture, electricity generation; as well as the management of volatility and price spikes in seasonal balancing, emergency, and security of supply. These are quantified with global forecasts made to 2023.

Chapter 9 analyzes the international scene and quantifies the global oil storage by economic grouping, broken down into geographic regions/countries for both commercial and strategic reserves.

Chapter 10 analyzes the structure of the storage industry, including the driving forces of the industry. Important strategies for staying competitive and important shifts in the industry are assessed. Trade practices of the industry and business, and the impact of storage on the petroleum and power industries are discussed. Concentration factors, company results and earnings, and changes are presented. Other aspects covered in this section include competition and market segmentation/fragmentation.

Chapter 11 presents and discusses the government environmental/energy regulation scene as it applies to the oil storage infrastructure and business, as well as the agencies involved, including industry compliance and quantification of economic effects, as the case may be.

Chapter 12 presents company profiles of companies involved in the oil storage infrastructure and business, with highlights of their major activities in the oil storage business, including the company name, address and telephone number.

Report Includes:

- 119 data tables and 30 additional tables
- An overview of the global market for oil storage
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2017 to 2018, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2023
- Identification of applications of oil storage in petrochemicals, petroleum refining, residential and electric generation industry
- Coverage of the products such as crude oil, natural gas liquids (NGLs), ethane/LPG, naphtha, gasoline, gasoil/diesel and jet/kerosene
- Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of oil storage and commercialization issues and opportunities of the industry
- Detailed profiles of major players in the industry, including Anadarko Petroleum Corp., Exxon Mobil Corp., General Electric Co., Kuwait Petroleum Corp., Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Petrochina, Royal Dutch Shell Plc and Tetra Technologies Inc.

Summary

The value of global demand for oil storage in the entire oil value chain will increase at a CAGR of REDACTED over the next five years to reach REDACTED in 2023 (see summary table and summary figure). The global demand for oil storage has now become a key component in both the economic and political environments due to the volatility in crude oil prices. Oil storage stocks are usually distinguished by three different types: primary, secondary and tertiary stocks. In all research carried out on oil storage, the last two types of stocks (i.e., secondary and tertiary) are usually ignored, and hence a lower volume of oil in storage is reported. However, this BCC Research report has included the secondary and
tertiary stocks, and in addition, has also quantified the oil stocks that are in transit plying the seas, plus those held onboard moored very large crude carriers (VLCCs) and used as storage for floating storage of crude oil. The global oil storage market along the entire value chain is bifurcated on the basis of reserve type into strategic/emergency and commercial/private sectors.

The global demand for strategic petroleum reserves (SPR) will increase at a CAGR corresponding to REDACTED over the next five years, to reach REDACTED in 2023. Due to the key role played by petroleum in national energy security and the constant need for its availability in case of an emergency such as adverse weather or military operations, many countries across the world are currently developing strategic reserves. However, the United States, who was one of the first countries to establish a strategic/emergency reserve, is now selling its reserve. An indication of the dollar value of the strategic reserve can be inferred from the recent sale to China by the United States. In April 2017, for the first time
in history, oil from the U.S. SPR was sold to China through the overseas trading arm of state-owned oil giant PetroChina, scooping up REDACTED for REDACTED. While this is not a massive purchase, it is unprecedented. Other prominent buyers of the U.S. SPR oil are BP, which has purchased REDACTED of oil priced at REDACTED, and Valero Marketing and Supply Co., which has purchased REDACTED priced at REDACTED.

The global demand commercial oil storage sector will increase at a CAGR corresponding to REDACTED over the next five years to reach REDACTED in 2023. It is normal practice for oil companies to build up stores of crude oil and refined products to carry out their activities, and also to meet expected changes in seasonal demand and as a buffer to any interruption of supplies. For instance, American refineries buildup stocks of winter heating oil during the summer and autumn, which are stored on barges. In 2014, barges on the Hudson River delivered 20 million barrels of oil or 70% of the home heating oil to the port areas of New York and Boston for onward distribution to retailers’ storage tanks and
subsequent delivery to customers in the region. Commercial and private operators use oil storage facilities to either supply the market or to export their production.

Oil markets entered a phase of backwardation in 2018 (whereby the future price of oil is below the spot price), which does not encourage anyone to store oil, at sea or on land, until contango (whereby the future price of oil becomes above the spot price) returns on a more permanent basis. The so-called supercontango (future oil prices are higher than spot prices) occurred in 2015, which spurred producers and speculators to fill and anchor a record 132 oil tankers, as trading firms were able to hire the very large crude carrier (VLCC) vessels for less than $40,000 a day, compared to spot rates of $60,000 to $70,000 a day.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
Study Goals and Objectives
Reasons for Doing This Study
Scope of Report
Information Sources
Contribution of the Study and for Whom
Methodology
Regional Breakdown
Analyst's Credentials
BCC Custom Research
Related BCC Research Reports

Chapter 2 Summary and Highlights

Chapter 3 Overview
Putting the Global Oil Storage Market in Its Proper Context
Demand for Global Commercial Oil Storage
Demand for Global Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
The Principal Need for Oil Storage
Overview of the Importance of Oil Storage Along the Oil Industry Supply Chain
Overview of Oil Distribution, Uses and Environmental Impact
Overview of Volume and Value of Global Oil Storage
Overview of the Value of Oil Storage and as a Percentage of the Dollar Value of Global Crude Oil and Global Refined Oil Trade
Global Imports of Crude Oil
Global Exports of Crude Oil
Global Exports of Refined Oil
Overview of Customers and Markets in Oil Storage Along the Supply Chain
Oil Producers
Pipelines
Tankers
Overview of the Optimal Storage Location and Need for Oil Storage
Overview of Classification of Crude Oil Resources
Overview of Average Crude Oil Price by Play/Type of Oil
Frontiers
Onshore Middle East
United States of America Shale
Offshore Shallow Water
Offshore Deepwater
Canadian Oil Sands
Venezuela Heavy Oil
The Dynamics of Oil Storage
Brent Crude Oil Futures in Contango, April 2016 to April 2024
Normal and Inverted Snapshot in Time
Contango and Normal Backwardation: Patterns Over Time
Overview of Crude Oil Price Sustainability
Some Caveats on the Futures Prices as Predictors
Overview of Regional Crude Oil Price Diversification by Geography
Gap Between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent Crude Oil Prices
Impact of the IMO (International Maritime Organization) 2020 Rule on Crude Oil Prices
Expected Pricing and Economic Impacts of the IMO 2020 Rule on Oil Storage
Impact on High-Sulfur Vacuum and High-Sulfur Fuel Oil (HSFO) Prices
Singapore 380 CST HSFO Versus Brent
Impact on Diesel and Other Refined Product Prices
Overview of the Impact of High Crude Prices (>$100/Barrel) on the Global Economy
Overview of the Major Impacts of Risks Faced by Oil Storage Companies and Their Mitigation Strategies
Overview of the Impact of the IMO 2020 Rule on Product Prices
Gasoline Prices
Diesel Prices
Heating Oil Prices
Overview of U.S. Dollar Strength in the Oil Storage Industry
The United States Dollar
The Chinese RMB
Ending the Dollar Dominance in Oil Trade
Overview of the History of Oil Storage

Chapter 4 Major Trends That Will Impact the Oil Storage Industry Through 2023
Trends in Global Energy Demand
Global Fossil Fuel Demand by Type
Trends in Global Oil Supply
United States of America
Saudi Arabia
Russia
West Africa
Rest of the World (ROW)
OPEC Versus Non-OPEC Global Oil Supply
Trends in Crude Oil Consumption
The United States of America
China
India
Rest of the World (ROW)
Trends in Global Oil Consumption by End-use
Transportation
Petrochemicals
Other Industry Uses
Residential/Commercial/Agriculture
Electricity Generation
Trends in Oil Storage in Major Trading Hubs
Rotterdam (The Netherlands)
Singapore
Fujairah
Shanghai
Dubai
Other
Trends in Proven Reserves, Production Rate and Time Left for the 10 Biggest Oil Producing Countries
Trends in Global Crude Oil Refining Capacity
North America
Europe
Asia
Rest of the World (ROW)
Middle East
Africa
Latin America
Trends in Average Crude Oil Price Required to Balance Budgets and Winners and Losers Due to the Drop in Oil Prices
Winners and Losers Due to the Drop in Global Crude Oil Prices
Trends in Oil Storage in Global Maritime Oil Trade
Vulnerability of the World’s Maritime Chokepoints and Alternative Routes
Trends in the Effects of U.S. Trade War with China and Re-imposed Sanctions on Iran on Floating Storage and Global Seaborne Oil Tanker Flows
The U.S. Trade War with China and Re-imposed Sanctions on Iran on Redirecting/Re-routing Global Seaborne Oil Tanker Flows
Trends in Global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and GDP Growth Rates
North America
Europe
Russia/CIS
Asia
Latin America, Africa and the Middle East (LAMEA)
Global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Growth Rates

Chapter 5 Demand for Oil Storage by Type
Global Demand for Oil Storage by Type of Economic Group
Demand for Non-OECD Economic Grouping Oil Storage by Sector
Demand for OECD Economic Grouping Oil Storage by Reserve
Global Demand for Oil Storage by Type of Reserve
Commercial Oil Storage Reserve
Strategic Oil Storage Reserve
Demand for Global Oil Storage by Type of Stock
Primary Stocks
Secondary Stocks (Wholesalers and Distributors)
Stock in Transit and Floating Storage Stocks
Tertiary Stocks (End Users)
Demand for Oil Storage by Type of Market Player
Oil Strategics (Integrated Oil and Gas Companies)
Independent Oil Terminal Storage Players
Trading Houses
Oil Refiners
National Oil Companies (NOCs)
Seaborne Oil Tanker Companies
Independent Oil and Gas Companies
Governments
Demand for Global Oil Storage by Type of Location Along the Supply Chain Infrastructure
The Crude Oil Supply Chain Infrastructure
Upstream
Midstream
Downstream
Demand for Global Oil Storage by Geographic Region
North America
Europe
Asia
Rest of the World (ROW)
Demand for Oil Storage by Type of Cluster
Terminals
Countries
Tank Terminal Oil Storage Density
Country Oil Storage Density

Chapter 6 Demand for Oil Storage by Product
Demand for Crude Oil Storage by Gravity
Demand for Heavy Crude Oil Storage
Demand for Medium Crude Oil Storage
Demand for Light Crude Oil Storage
Demand for Products Storage by Distillation Fraction
Demand for Light Products Storage
Demand for Middle Distillates Storage
Demand for Heavy Products Storage

Chapter 7 Demand for Oil Storage by Technology
Demand for Oil Storage by Type of Physical Technology
Demand for Cavern Oil Storage Technology
Demand for Solution Mined Salt Cavern Oil Storage Technology
Demand for Unlined Rock Cavern Oil Storage Technology
Lined Rock Cavern Oil Storage Technology
Demand for Tank Oil Storage by Material Technology
Demand for Carbon Steel Oil Storage Tanks
Demand for Stainless Steel Oil Storage Tanks
Demand for Fiberglass Oil Storage Tanks
Demand for Combination Oil Storage Tanks
Demand for Concrete Oil Storage Tanks
Demand for Tank Oil Storage by Type of Design Technology
Demand for Open Top Oil Storage Tank Technology
Demand for Fixed Roof Oil Storage Tank Technology
Demand for Floating Roof Oil Storage Tank Technology
Demand for Other Oil Storage Tank Technology
Demand for Oil Storage Tanker Seaborne Trade
Demand for Product Tankers
Demand for Medium Range (MR)/Handysize (HS) Tanker Vessel Technology
Demand for Long Range (LR) Tanker Vessel Technology
Demand for Crude Oil Storage Tankers
Demand for Aframax Tanker Vessel Technology
Demand for Suezmax Tanker Vessel Technology
Demand for Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) Technology
Demand for Oil on Water Floating Storage Technology
Global Demand for FPSO/FPDSO/FSO and Shuttle Tankers
Floating Storage Trade Technology
Technology Leadership

Chapter 8 Demand for Oil Storage by Reserve End-Use Application
Demand for Global Oil Storage by Reserve
Demand for Commercial Oil Storage Reserves by End Use
Global Demand for Commercial Oil Storage in OtherEnd Uses
Demand for Oil Storage in Electric Generation End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in Residential, Commercial and Agricultural End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in Volatility/Price Spikes End Use
Global Demand for Commercial Oil Storage in Transportation End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in Road Transportation End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in Aviation Transportation End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in Rail and Domestic Waterways Transportation End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in Marine Bunkers Transportation End Use
Global Demand for Commercial Oil Storage by Industry End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in Petrochemicals End Use
Demand for Oil Storage in ‘’Other Industry’’ End Use
Demand for Strategic Oil Storage Reserves by End Use
Demand for Strategic Oil Storage in Energy Security
Demand for Strategic Oil Storage in Managing Market Expectations
Demand for Strategic Oil Storage for Emergency

Chapter 9 International Markets
Demand for Global Oil Storage by Economic Grouping
Global Demand for Commercial Oil Storage by Economic Grouping
Demand for OECD North America Commercial Oil Storage
Demand for OECD Europe Commercial Oil Storage
Demand for OECD Asia Commercial Oil Storage
Demand for Non-OECD Commercial Oil Storage
Demand for Global Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for OECD Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for OECD North America Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for OECD Europe Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for OECD Asia Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for Non-OECD Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for Non-OECD Asia Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
China
India
Vietnam
Singapore
Demand for Non-OECD Europe Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for Non-OECD LAMEA Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for Non-OECD Africa Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage
Demand for Non-OECD Middle East Strategic/Emergency Oil
Global Demand for Oil Storage On-Transit in Maritime Trade
The Strait of Hormuz
The Strait of Malacca
The Suez Canal and the SUMED Pipeline
The Strait of Bab El-Mandeb
The Danish Straits
The Cape of Good Hope
The Turkish Straits
The Panama Canal
Global Demand for Floating Oil Storage
Demand for North America Oil-On-Water (Floating) Storage
Demand for Europe Oil-On-Water (Floating) Storage
Demand for Asia Oil-On-Water (Floating) Storage
Demand for Latin America, Middle East and Africa (LAMEA) Oil-On-Water (Floating) Storage
Global Demand for FSO, FPSO and Shuttle Tankers
North American Demand for FPSO, FSO and Shuttle Tanker Storage
European Demand for FSPO, FSO and Shuttle Tanker Storage
Asia-Pacific Demand for FSPO, FSO and Shuttle Tanker Storage
Latin American Demand for FSPO, FSO and Shuttle Tanker Storage
Middle Eastern Demand for FSPO, FSO and Shuttle Tanker Storage
West African Demand for FSPO, FSO and Shuttle Tanker Storage
Global Demand for Refinery Oil Storage by Geographic Region
North America
European Union (EU-28)
Russia and Caspian
China
Other Asia/Pacific
Middle East, Africa and Latin America

Chapter 10 Industry Structure
Role of Oil Storage Services Along the Oil Infrastructure Value Chain
Capital Expenditure Across the Oil and Gas Value Chain by Segment
Value Chain Location of Investments
Expenditures by Major Companies
Capital Expenditures Across Oil and Gas Infrastructure Chain, by Sector/Key Country
Midstream
Oil Storage
LNG Liquefaction
Underground Gas Storage
Downstream
Petrochemicals
Global Capital Investments in Planned/Announced Oil Storage Capacity by Geographic Region
North America
Asia
Middle East
Oil Storage Revenues by Type of Company Grouping
Major Trading Houses
Major Integrated Oil Companies
Major Equipment and Oilfield Services Oil Companies Revenues
Big Independent Oil Companies Revenues
Major National Oil Companies Revenues
Major FSPO, FSO, FPS, FSU and FDPSO Vendor Revenues
Major Oil Tanker Company Revenues
Cost of Oil Storage by Type
Underground Cavern Storage/Tank Farms
Rail Tankers
Truck Tanker
Floating Storage on a Large Boat on Water
Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCCs)
Old VLCCs/UVLCCs
FPSO/FSO/FDPSO
Oil Storage Services Company Revenue Generation
Stocks
Oil Storage Services Company Profit Margins
Oil Storage Terminal Hubs
Oil Storage by Major Hub
North America Oil Storage by Type of Major Trading Hub
The Cushing Oil Trading Hub
Hovensa Oil Trading Hub
Hardisty and Edmonton Oil Trading Hubs
Europe Oil Storage by Type of Major Trading Hub
The Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA) Oil Trading Hub
Asia Oil Storage by Type of Major Trading Hub
Singapore Oil Trading Hub
ROW Oil Storage by Type of Major Trading Hub Through 2023
Middle East
South/Central America
Africa
Application Envelopes
Application Envelopes for Crude Oil Versus Products Storage
Application Envelopes for Products Versus Crude Tanker Sizes
Application Envelopes for Underground Oil Storage Technology
Application Envelopes for Stainless Steel versus Carbon Steel Oil Storage Tanks
Application Envelopes for Oil on Transit Maritime Trade Versus Chokepoints Flow
Key Market Trends in the Oil Storage Industry
Global Crude Oil Import Dependency
Largest Oil Exporting Companies
Major Oil Exporting Countries and Global Market Shares
Importers of the Highest Dollar Value Worth of Crude Oil
Exporters of the Highest Dollar Value Worth of Crude Oil
Capital Markets
Global Oil and Capital Raised by Geography
North America
Asia-Pacific
Rest of the World (ROW)
Crude Oil Price Forecasting
2017 WTI Oil Price Forecast
2018 WTI Oil Prices Forecast/Forecasting Error and 2019 Forecast
Exploring the Exchange-Storage Setup
New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX)
Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)
Types of Oil Contracts
Settlement of Contracts
Futures
International Agreements on Strategic Oil Storages
Global Research and Development Investments

Chapter 11 Legislation and Regulation
The Oil Pollution Act of 1990
The Energy Policy Act of 1975
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015
Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act of 2015
The 21st Century Cures Act of 2016
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) 2020 Rule
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Target of 2018
IMO's Future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA)
The Insurance Act of 2015
The Merchant Shipping Act of 1995
The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC)
Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA)

Chapter 12 Company Profiles
Oil Storage Tank Manufacturers
A & G ENGINEERING
BELCO MANUFACTURING CO. INC.
BUCKEYE FABRICATING CO.
COLUMBIAN STELL TANK CO.
CONTAINMENT SOLUTIONS INC.
L.F. MANUFACTURING INC.
PKG EQUIPMENT INC.
POLY PROCESSING CO. LLC
RED EWALD INC.
SYNALLOY CORP. (SYNL: NASDAQ)
ZCL COMPOSITES INC.
Integrated Majors
BRITISH PETROLEUM (BP) PLC
CHEVRON CORP.
EXXON MOBIL CORP.
ROYAL DUTCH SHELL PLC
TOTAL S.A.
Large Independents
ANADARKO PETROLEUM CORP.
APACHE CORP.
CHESAPEAKE ENERGY CORP.
CONOCOPHILLIPS
DEVON ENERGY CORP.
EOG RESOURCES INC.
MARATHON OIL CORP.
OCCIDENTAL PETROLEUM CORP.
Oilfield Services: Diversified
BAKER HUGHES INC.
HALLIBURTON CO.
NATIONAL OILWELL VARCO INC.
SCHLUMBERGER LTD.
WEATHERFORD INTERNATIONAL PLC
Oilfield Services: Service Focused
ARCHER WELL CO. INC.
ARCHROCK INC.
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES INC.
C&J ENERGY SERVICES LTD.
CALFRAC WELL SERVICES LTD.
CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP. (SCHLUMBERGER LTD.)
CARBO CERAMICS INC.
CORE LABORATORIES N.V.
CSI COMPRESSCO LP
DANANG RUBBER JOINT STOCK CO.
DOVER CORP.
DRILL-QUIP INC.
FLOTEK INDUSTRIES INC.
FORBES ENERGY SERVICES LTD.
FORUM ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES INC.
GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.
KEY ENERGY SERVICES INC.
NATIONAL OILWELL VARCO INC.
NATURAL GAS SERVICES INC.
NEWPARK RESOURCES INC.
OIL STATES INTERNATIONAL INC.
RIGNET INC.
RPC INC.
SEVENTY-SEVEN ENERGY INC.
SEVENTY-SEVEN ENERGY INC.
TECHNIPFMC
TENARIS S.A.
TETRA TECHNOLOGIES INC.
TRICAN WELL SERVICES LTD.
WEIR GROUP PLC
Small Independents
ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS PARTNERS LP
PLAINS OF AMERICAN PIPELINE
Major Oil Storage Companies
BUKEYE PARTNERS LP
CIM-CCMP GROUP
CLH GROUP
HORIZON TERMINALS LTD.
INTERNATIONAL-MATEX TANK TERMINALS, LLC
KINDER MORGAN INC.
MAGELLAN MIDSTREAM PARTNERS LP (NYSE: MMP)
OILTANKING GMBH
OMAN TANK TERMINAL CO. LLC (OTTCO)
SUNOCO LOGISTICS PARTNERS L.P. (NYSE: MMP)
TRAPIL
VOPAK
Oil Traders
ENBRIDGE INC.
GIBSON ENERGY INC. (TSX: GEI)
MERCURIA
NUSTAR ENERGY L.P.
TRAFIGURA
Seaborne Oil Tanker Operators/Lease and Owners
ALASKA TANKER CO.
BP OIL SHIPPING CO. USA
DHT HOLDINGS INC. (NYSE: DHT)
ESSAR SHIPPING LTD.
EURONAV NV (NYSE: EURN)
FRONTLINE LTD (NYSE: FRO)
GENER8 MARITIME (NYSE: GNRT)
KUWAIT OIL TANKERS CO.
KEYSTONE ALASKA LLC
NAVIOS MARITIME PARTNERS L.P. (NYSE: NMM)
NORDIC AMERICAN TANKERS LTD (NAT) (NYSE: NAT)
OSG SHIP MANAGEMENT INC.
SHIPPING CORP. OF INDIA
SHIP FINANCE INTERNATIONAL LTD. (SFL)
TEEKAY TANKERS LTD. (NYSE: TNK)
TSAKOS ENERGY NAVIGATION LTD. (TNP) (NYSE: TNP)
Offshore Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Vendors
BUMI ARMADA
BW OFFSHORE
FLUOR
MODEC
PETROBRAS
SBM OFFSHORE
Shuttle Tanker Companies
J.J. UGLANDS COS.
KNUTSEN OAS SHIPPING
TEEKAY CORP.
National Oil Companies (NOC)
ABU DHABI NATIONAL OIL CO.
CHINA PETROLEUM AND CHEMICAL CORP.
ECOPETROL SA
ENI
EQUINOR ASA (FORMALLY KNOWN AS STATIOL ASA)
GAZPROM
KAZMUNAIGAS EXPLORATION PRODUCTION
KUWAIT PETROLEUM CORP.
MOL GROUP
NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL CO.
NATIONAL NIGERIAN PETROLEUM COMPANY (NNPC)
OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORP. LTD.
OJSC LUKOIL
OMV AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT
PERTAMINA
PETROCHINA
PETROECUADOR
PETROLEO BRASILEIRO S.A.
PETROLEOS DE VENEZUELA
PETROLEOS MEXICANOS
PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT OMAN LLC
PETROLIAM NASIONAL BERHAD
PTT (THAILAND)
QATAR PETROLEUM
ROSNEFT
SAUDI ARAMCO
SONANGOL EP
SONATRACH

Major National Governments with Strategic/Emergency Oil Storage Reserves
United States of America
China
Japan
South Korea
Spain
India
South Africa
Oil Storage Inventory Tracking Companies
GEOSPATIAL INSIGHT LTD.
KPLER SAS
ORBITAL INSIGHT ENERGY
REMOTE SATELLITE SYSTEMS INTERNATIONAL
URSA GLOBAL OIL STORAGE MONITORING
VORTEXA

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